Psychological Warfare as a Hybrid Threat to the Modern International Security System

Keywords: psychological warfare, IPSO, psychological influence, Russian psychological attacks, propaganda


This article deals with the problem of psychological warfare in modern international relations. The purpose of the article is a comprehensive study of psychological mechanisms of influence on the population used by the enemy, with the aim of combating them in the future. The main stages of the psychological operations evolution and their characteristic features are determined. Such methods have been actively used since antiquity, especially during military operations. But this concept received its scientific justification and became widespread only in the 20th century.

The main categories of research are psychological influence, information-psychological operation and psychological warfare. They are closely interrelated and underpin each other. Three main groups are distinguished among the most common methods of psychological warfare: psychological pressure, manipulation of consciousness, hidden violation and distortion of the logic laws. The author concludes that the most characteristic of international relations is the use of latent, targeted, indirect propaganda influence. During Russian-Ukrainian hybrid war, the Russian Federation actively continued to use psychological mechanisms of influence, especially on the population of the temporarily occupied territories. The author characterizes the areas where this influence requires immediate countermeasures.


Download data is not yet available.


Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2015, November 30). Psychological warfare. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from [in English].

Diagnosing the Dictators (1939). H.R. Knickerbocker interview with Carl Jung. January 1939. Princeton University Press. Retrieved from [in English].

German Propaganda Leaflets (1945). Esslingen, Germany. Public Intelligence. Retrieved from [in English].

Goldstein, L.F., & Findley, F.B. (1996). Psychological Operations Principles and Case Studies. Alabama: USAFR Air University. Press Maxwell Air Force Base [in English].

Habro, I., Vovchuk, L., & Shevchuk, O. (2020). Informational and Psychological Influence on Student Youth in the Conditions of the Information-Psychological War. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 10 (1) (January), 56-61. DOI: [in English].

Habro, I.V. & Shevchuk, O.V. (2021). Informatsiino-psykholohichnyi vplyv na suspilnu svidomist v umovakh informatsiino-psykholohichnoi viiny. Viiny informatsiinoi epokhy: mizhdystsyplinarnyi dyskurs, 215-228 [in Ukrainian].

Khoroshko, V., & Khokhlachova, Yu. (2016). Іnformatsiina viina. ZMI yak instrument informatsiinoho vplyvu na suspilstvo. Vol. 1. Bezpeka informatsii, 22 (3), 283-288 [in Ukrainian].

Lainbardzher, P. (2013). Psikhologicheskaia voina. Teoriia i praktika obrabotki massovogo soznaniia. Moskwa: Tsentrpoligraf [in Russian].

Libicki, M.C. (2021). Cyberspace in Peace and War (Transforming War). Naval Institute Press [in English].

Maruta, N.O. & Markova, M.V. (2015). Informatsiino-psykholohichna viina yak novyi vyklyk suchasnosti: stan problemy ta napriamky yii podolannia. Ukrainskyi visnyk psykhonevrolohii, 3 (84), 21-28 [in Ukrainian].

Olshanskii, D. (2001). Osnovy politicheskoi psikhologi. Ekaterinburg: Delovaia kniga [in Russian].

Skulysha, Ye.D. (2012). Istoriia informatsiino-psykholohichnoho protyborstva. Kyiv: Natsionalna Akademia SB Ukrainy [in Ukrainian].

Sun-Tszy (2016). Mystetstvo Viiny. Kharkiv: KSD [in Ukrainian].

Walke, F.W. (1987). Truth Is the Best Propaganda. A Study in Military Psychological Operations. National Guard, October, 27-39 [in English].

Yudin, O.K. (2005). Informatsiina bezpeka derzhavy. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo: MK-Press [in Ukrainian].

How to Cite
Zvezdova, O. (2023). Psychological Warfare as a Hybrid Threat to the Modern International Security System. Acta De Historia & Politica: Saeculum XXI, (5), 63-71. Retrieved from