The evolution of public diplomacy and image of Sweden (40-90-ies of the twentieth century)
The dynamic development of the modern system of international relations, with its various risks and challenges, poses to the modern states rather stringent requirements for improving the instruments of its foreign policy. Against the background of the rapid spread of Internet technologies, the accelerated transfer of information and the intensification of globalization processes, public diplomacy has become much more important. This tendency is practically embodied in the foreign policy of both the leading world powers and small countries, for which recognition and positive image in the eyes of the world community is a key condition for realizing national interests. Sweden, one of the most developed Scandinavian countries, can serve as a prime example for us. A country that ranks eighth in the list of countries with the highest nominal GDP per capita and very high in other rankings, such as quality of life, health, education, protection of public and political rights, competitiveness, equality, prosperity, and human development. Public diplomacy in this country has been developing steadily for seventy years.
As a starting point in the study of this process can be conditionally taken directly the date of creation of the Swedish Institute (1945) - a profile institution, whose main function was to disseminate information about Sweden in order to increase the attractiveness of the state in the World.
The original purpose of public diplomacy was to get rid of the negative effects of neutrality policy during World War II, and during the 1950’s and 1980’s. Sweden’s goal of public diplomacy was to make the country more visible in the international arena through parallel promotion of national characteristics and interests. Since the late 1990’s, Sweden’s public diplomacy has changed significantly, shifting its focus to cultural and social life while practically avoiding the current political agenda.
A Global Ranking of Soft Power 2017. (2017). Retrieved from https://softpower30.com/soft-power-30-2017/ [in English].
Åkerlund, A. (2016). Public Diplomacy and Academic Mobility in Sweden: The Swedish Institute and and Scholarship Programs for Foreign Academics 1938-2010. Nordic Academic Press, Sweden. [in English].
Clerc, L., Glover, N. & Jordan, P. (2015). Histories of Public Diplomacy and Nation Branding in the Nordic and Baltic Countries (Representing the Periphery). Brill-Nijhoff. [in English].
Cull, N.J. (2009). «Public Diplomacy» Before Gullion: The Evolution of a Phrase. USC Public Diplomacy, University of Southern California, FIGUEROA PRESS. [in English].
Davidson, K.A. (2013). Democracy Index 2013: Global Democracy аt а Standstill, The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Annual Report Shows. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/democracy-index-2013-economist-intelligence-unit_n_2909619 [in English].
Glover, N. (2011). International Relations: Public diplomacy, national identity and the Swedish Institute 1945-1970. Nordic Academic Press. [in English].
Hilson, M. (2012). Images of Sweden (Historisk tidskrift). London: University College. [in English].
Ivanova, N. (2018). Publichna dyplomatiia yak efektyvnyi mekhanizm zovnishnoi polityky derzhavy [Public diplomacy as an effective mechanism of the foreign policy of the state.]. Visnyk Kharkivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni V.N. Karazina. Seriia “Pytannia politolohii”, 32, 122-127. Retrieved from https://periodicals.karazin.ua/politology/article/view/10929 [in Ukrainian].
Kinnwall, A. (2017). The Differentiation of the Nation: The Swedish Nation Brand Management. Department of Government, Uppsala University. [in English].
Lushnikova, L.A. (2018). Publichnaia diplomatiia Shvetsii v period s 1945 po 2017 gg.: tendentsii, factory, perspektivy. [Public diplomacy of Sweden in the period from 1945 to 2017: Trends, factors, prospects]. Sankt-Peterburg: SPbGU. Retrieved from https://dspace.spbu.ru/handle/11701/13835 [in Russian].
Matlai, L. (2015). Kulinarna dyplomatiia yak riznovyd publichnoi dyplomatii: novi pidkhody ta kontseptsii [Culinary diplomacy as a form of public diplomacy: new approaches and concepts]. Humanitarni vizii, 1 (2), 55-59. [in Ukrainian].
Nye, J. (2012). Get Smart: Combining Hard and Soft Power. Foreign Affairs, 88 (4), 160-163. [in English].
Pamment, J. (2013). New Public Diplomacy in the 21st Century: A comparative study of policy and practice. London-New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved from https://www.book2look.com/embed/9781136219535 [in English].
Rozumna, O.P. & Chernetko, T.V. (Eds). (2016). Polityka kulturnoi dyplomatii: stratehichni priorytety dlia Ukrainy. [Politics of Cultural Diplomacy: Strategic Priorities for Ukraine]. Kyiv: NISD. [in Ukrainian].
Tsvetkova, N.A. (2015). Publichnaia diplomatiia kak instrument ideologicheskoi i politicheskoi ekspansii SShA v mire, 1914-2014 gg. [Public Diplomacy as instrument of US ideological and political expansion in the world, 1914-2014]. Sankt-Peterburg: SPbGU. [in Russian].
Abstract views: 214 PDF Downloads: 231
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.