Сombating hybrid threats in the EU (by the European Union regulation and legal framework)
Given the relevance of the topic of combating hybrid threats to Ukraine, the author draws attention to the regulatory framework of the European Union, which identifies hybrid threats and provides actions and measures to combat them. During 2016-2020, the main EU documents were adopted, which consider the definition of hybrid threats, identify areas where they can be implemented and identify measures to combat them: «Joint structure to combat hybrid threats – the response of the European Union» (2016), «Improving resilience and Strengthening Capabilities to Overcome Hybrid Threats» (2018), «Report on the Implementation of the Joint Program on Countering Hybrid Threats 2016 and the Joint Communication 2018 on Enhancing Sustainability and Strengthening Capabilities to Overcome Hybrid Threats ”(2020), EU Security Strategy 2020. Hybrid threats include cybersecurity, critical infrastructure, protection of the financial system from illicit use and efforts to combat violent extremism and radicalization, health care, outer space and maritime space. The primary responsibility for combating hybrid threats lies with Member States, but in cases where threats go beyond their borders and affect the organization, the Commission, the High Representative and the newly established bodies are responsible: HFC, East Stratcom, Horizontal Working Group, Center for Excellence in combating hybrid threats. The analyzed documents demonstrate the importance of coordination of all EU institutions in the fight against hybrid threats. If the 2016 document is mostly about the Commission, the High Representative, HFC, INTCEN, EEAS, then the number of institutions involved in such countermeasures will expand the tasks for the Council of the EU, the European Parliament and various EU defense and intelligence agencies.
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