Historical background of the quasi-state entities emergence and formation in East of Ukraine

Keywords: Ukraine, Russian Federation, «DPR / LPR», quasi-state entities, separatism, East of Ukraine


This article deals with quasi-state entities in eastern Ukraine. The main historical prerequisites for the beginning of the conflict are identified: remote, peripheral geographical location relative to the capital, imperial policy of the USSR, the presence of a significant number of Russian migrants among the local inhabitants. The main causes of the conflict were the support of the separatism in the Donbass by the Russian Federation, direct participation in anti-Ukrainian actions of Russian citizens, a massive information campaign of the Russian media, annexation of Crimea, some mistakes of the Ukrainian power.

The first stage of the modern conflict in eastern Ukraine began in March 2014. Mass riots broke out in Donetsk and Luhansk regions under openly separatist and pro-Russian slogans. The second stage was characterized by more active and aggressive actions of the pro-Russian separatists. The phase of open military confrontation began after the holding of illegitimate referendums in the territory of Donetsk and Lugansk regions. This stage was complicated by the direct Russian support of the separatist regions. The active phase of the armed confrontation continued until early 2015. Their status is defined by the Ukrainian legislation as temporarily occupied territories. At the present stage, the priority is the complete cessation of war in the east of Ukraine, which does not allow to focus on regaining control over the occupied territories, reintegration of these regions into the Ukrainian political space.

It is forecasted that the genesis of the conflict over the so-called «DPR/LPR» may become the basis for its «freezing». It may complicate the future process of state reintegration. The changes in the mass consciousness of the population of the regions through information war and pro-Russian propaganda of the opposite side and activation of state-building processes in the occupied region are threats to the national security of Ukraine.


Download data is not yet available.


Chyrkov, O.A. (2016). Etnichnyi chynnyk v ahresii rosiiskoi federatsii proty Ukrainy: etnokulturna istoriia pivdenno-skhidnykh ukrainskykh zemel i suchasni manipuliatsii Kremlia [Ethnic factor in the aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine: the ethno-cultural history of the southeastern Ukrainian lands and the modern manipulation of the Kremlin]. In P.P. Hai-Nyzhnyk (Ed.), Ahresiia Rosii proty Ukrainy: istorychni peredumovy ta suchasni vyklyky (pp. 109-130). Kyiv: MP Lesia. [in Ukrainian].

Derhachov, O. (1996). Ukrainska derzhavnist u XX stolitti: Istoryko-politolohichnyi analiz [Ukrainian Statehood in the XX Century: Historical and Political Analysis]. Kyiv: Politychna dumka. Retrieved from http://litopys.org.ua/ukrxx/r15.htm [in Ukrainian].

Derzhavnyi komitet statystyky Ukrainy. (2002). Pro kilkist ta sklad naselennia Ukrainy za pidsumkamy Vseukrainskoho perepysu naselennia 2001 roku [About the number and composition of the population of Ukraine according to the results of the 2001 All-Ukrainian Population Census]. Retrieved from http://2001.ukrcensus.gov.ua/results/general/nationality/ [in Ukrainian].

Derzhavnyi komitet statystyky Ukrainy. (2002). Rozpodil naselennia rehioniv Ukrainy za ridnoiu movoiu (za danymy Vseukrainskoho perepysu naselennia 2001 roku) [Distribution of the population of regions of Ukraine in their native language (according to the 2001 All-Ukrainian Population Census)]. Retrieved from http://2001.ukrcensus.gov.ua/i/u/cens2001.pdf [in Ukrainian].

Hai-Nyzhnyk, P.P. (2017). Rosiia proty Ukrainy (1990-2016 rr.): vid polityky shantazhu i prymusu do viiny na pohlynannia ta sproby znyshchennia [Russia vs. Ukraine (1990-2016): From Blackmail and Coercion Policy to War to Absorption and Destruction Attempts]. Kyiv: MP Lesia. [in Ukrainian]

Karatnycky, A. (2015, June 9). Putin’s Warlords Slip Out of Control. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/10/opinion/putins-warlords-slip-out-of-control.html?_r=1 [in English].

Klichko: My peresmotrim zakon o iazykakh (interviu Sokolovskoi) [Klichko: We will revise the law on languages (interview with Y. Sokolovskaya)]. (2014). Izvestiia. Retrieved from https://iz.ru/news/566556 [in Russian].

Kokotiukha, A. (2017). Chy vynen «movnyi zakon» u vtorhnenni Rosii v Ukrainu [Is the «language law» guilty of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine]. Hlavred. Retrieved from http://glavred.info/avtorskie_kolonki/chi-vinen-movniy-zakon-u-vtorgnenni-rosiyi-v-ukrayinu-273593.html [in Ukrainian].

Kto ty, Strelok: interviu s I. Strelkovym [Who are you, Shooter? (interview with I. Strelkov)]. (2014). Gazeta Zavtra. Retrieved from http://zavtra.ru/blogs/kto-tyi-strelok [in Russian].

Luganskyi oblastnoi sovet. (2004). Ob ukreplenii organizatsionnoi struktury mestnoi vlasti v Luganskoi oblasti [On strengthening the organizational structure of local authorities in the Luhansk region]. Retrieved from http://oblrada.lg.ua/node/2159 [in Russian].

Luhanski separatysty oholosyly ostatochni rezultaty «referendumu» [Lugansk separatists announce the final results of the “referendum”]. (2014). Ukrainska pravda. Retrieved from http://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2014/05/12/7025091/ [in Ukrainian].

Nas shtovkhaiut u PiSUAR [We are being pushed into the PiSUAR]. (2012). Ukrainskyi tyzhden. Retrieved from http://tyzhden.ua/Politics/66863 [in Ukrainian].

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2015). Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine 16 May to 15 August. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/UA/11thOHCHRreportUkraine.pdf [in English].

Postanova Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy Pro Zvernennia Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy do Orhanizatsii Ob’iednanykh Natsii, Yevropeiskoho Parlamentu, Parlamentskoi Asamblei Rady Yevropy, Parlamentskoi Asamblei NATO, Parlamentskoi Asamblei OBSIe, Parlamentskoi Asamblei HUAM, natsionalnykh parlamentiv derzhav svitu pro vyznannia Rosiiskoi Federatsii derzhavoiu-ahresorom [The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Resolution on the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine’s Appeal to the United Nations, the European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, the GUAM Parliamentary Assembly, and the national parliaments on the recognition of the Russian Federation as an aggressor]. (2015). Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady (VVR), 10, 68. [in Ukrainian].

Proekt Donetskoi Respubliki na Ukraine sushchestvoval davno eshche pri Iushchenko [The project of the «Donetsk Republic» in Ukraine has existed for a long time – even under Yushchenko]. (2014). Moskovskii komsomolets. Retrieved from http://www.mk.ru/politics/article/2014/04/07/ 1010242-proekt-donetskoy-respubliki-na-ukraine-suschestvoval-davno-esche-pri-yuschenko.html [in Russian].

Riabinin, Ye. (2017). Osnovni skladovi ekzohennoi dopomohy Rosii «DNR» ta «LNR» [The main components of Russian exogenous aid to «DNR» and «LNR»]. UA Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from http://uaforeignaffairs.com/ua/ekspertna-dumka/view/article/osnovni-skladovi-ekzogennoji-dopomogi-rosiji-dnr-ta/ [in Ukrainian].

Rossiiskaia gazeta vse eshche v Ukraine [Rossiyskaya Gazeta is still in Ukraine]. (2015). MediaSapiens. Retrieved from http://osvita.mediasapiens.ua/trends/mediacriticism/rossiyskaya_gazeta_vse_esche_v_ukraine/ [in Russian].

Rosiisko-ukrainskyi konflikt: stan, naslidky, perspektyvy rozvytku podii. Analitychna dopovid Tsentru Razumkova [The Russian-Ukrainian conflict: state, consequences, prospects]. (2014). Natsionalna bezpeka i oborona. 5-6. [in Ukrainian].

Separatysty proholosyly stvorennia «Donetskoi respubliky» ta «uviishly» do Rosii [The separatists proclaimed the creation of a «Donetsk Republic» and «entered» into Russia]. (2014). Ukrainska pravda. Retrieved from http://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2014/04/7/7021595/ [in Ukrainian].

Skliar, V. (2016). Chyselnist ta etnomovnyi sklad naselennia ne pidporiadkovanykh Ukraini terytorii Donetskoi ta Luhanskoi oblastei [The size and ethnic composition of the population of the not subordinated to Ukraine territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions]. Naukovi zapysky: IPiEND im. I.F. Kurasa NAN Ukrainy, 5-6, 254-278. [in Ukrainian].

U Luhansku proholosyly «Luhansku narodnu respubliku» [The Lugansk People’s Republic was proclaimed in Lugansk]. (2014). Radio Svoboda. Retrieved from http://www.radiosvoboda.org/media/video/25364473.html [in Ukrainian].

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. (2018, February 28). Ukraine: Four years of conflict leave 4.4M people in dire need of humanitarian assistance. Retrieved from http://www.unocha.org/story/ukraine-four-years-conflict-leave-44m-people-dire-need-humanitarian-assistance [in English].

Uriadovyi portal. (2020). Opryliudneno rezultaty otsinky chyselnosti naiavnoho naselennia Ukrainy [The results of the estimation of the population of the Ukrainian population are published]. Retrieved from https://www.kmu.gov.ua/news/oprilyudneno-rezultati-ocinki-chiselnosti-nayavnogo-naselennya-ukrayini [in Ukrainian].

Verkhovna Rada Ukrainy. (2014). Rishennia Rady natsionalnoi bezpeky i oborony Ukrainy vid 28 serpnia 2014 roku «Pro nevidkladni zakhody shchodo zakhystu Ukrainy ta zmitsnennia yii oboronozdatnosti» [Decision of the National Security and Defense Council of 28 August 2014 «On urgent measures to protect Ukraine and strengthen its defense capability»]. Retrieved from http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/n0011525-14 [in Ukrainian].

Vsesoiuznaia perepis naseleniia 1939 goda. Natsionalnyi sostav naseleniia raionov gorodov i krupnykh sel soiuznykh respublik SSSR [Union Population Census of 1939. The national composition of the population of regions, cities and large villages of the Union republics of the USSR]. Demoskop Weekly Institut demografii Natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo universiteta Vysshaia shkola ekonomiki. Retrieved from http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/ ussr_nac_39_ra.php?reg=46 [in Russian]

Abstract views: 158
PDF Downloads: 110
How to Cite
Zvezdova, O. (2020). Historical background of the quasi-state entities emergence and formation in East of Ukraine. Acta De Historia & Politica: Saeculum XXI, (01), 87-95. https://doi.org/10.26693/ahpsxxi2019.01.087